Introduction to Hydrogen and Its Applications


Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that has the lightest weight among all elements. Its molecular structure consists of two atoms of hydrogen that bond together to form an H2 molecule. Hydrogen has a wide array of properties that makes it ideal for use in various industrial applications. For one, it has a high energy content that makes it a valuable fuel source. Additionally, it burns cleanly without producing pollutants that harm the environment. Overall, hydrogen is a versatile element that continues to gain popularity as a sustainable solution for a variety of industries.

Hydrogen Production

Hydrogen production is one of the most critical aspects of the fuel’s adoption for industrial applications. Current production methods include:

  • Steam Methane Reforming, the most common method, uses natural gas to produce hydrogen. First, methane reacts with steam in the presence of a catalyst, producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Subsequently, the carbon monoxide reacts with steam, leading to the production of additional hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
  • Another method, electrolysis, is when an electric current passes through water, splitting the molecule into hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Biomass gasification is the process where biomass is converted into synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, by exposing the biomass to heat, steam, and pressure. Syngas can be used to produce ammonia and methane, or as fuel source.

 Ultimately, the method used depends on cost, efficiency and sustainability. Steam Methane Reforming is typically more economical, while electrolysis presents a less carbon intensive option. Biomass gasification is better suited for regions with abundant biomass feedstocks. Despite the different methods, hydrogen production is an essential step towards achieving the energy transition to cleaner and sustainable energy sources.


Transportation of Hydrogen

Now that we’ve examined how hydrogen is produced, let’s discuss how it can be transported. Compressed hydrogen gas and liquid hydrogen are the two main methods for transporting hydrogen. Compressed hydrogen gas is exactly what it sounds like – hydrogen gas that has been compressed under high pressure to reduce its volume. This allows it to be transported in tanks and cylinders like those used for compressed natural gas. Liquid hydrogen, on the other hand, is hydrogen that has been chilled to extremely low temperatures, which causes it to condense into a liquid state. Like compressed gas, it can be transported in tanks and cylinders. However, liquid hydrogen requires much more energy to produce and to maintain its low temperature, making it more expensive than compressed gas.

Hydrogen in Industrial Processes

Hydrogen has enormous potential as a clean and versatile fuel in a variety of industrial processes. The petrochemical industry uses hydrogen in the production of various chemicals, including fertilizers, plastics, and fuels. In metals refining, it is used to remove impurities from metals and improve their yield. Ammonia production is another key industrial use of hydrogen, with the gas used as a feedstock to produce ammonia for fertilizers and other applications. The food and beverage industry also uses hydrogen for a range of applications, including the hydrogenation of vegetable oils to make products like margarine.

Despite the numerous applications of hydrogen in various industrial processes, its adoption is not without its challenges. One hurdle is the high cost of producing, storing, and transporting the gas. Also, the lack of infrastructure for hydrogen storage and distribution further complicates its adoption.

However, with advancements in technology, hydrogen is becoming increasingly viable as a clean and efficient alternative to traditional fuels. The development of more efficient, clean production methods, such as electrolysis, coupled with advances in infrastructure and storage, are paving the way for a future in which hydrogen plays an ever more prominent role in industrial processes. While there are challenges to overcome, the potential benefits of hydrogen in various industrial applications make it an area that is ripe for innovation and investment. Hydrogen has the potential to revolutionize the way we produce and consume goods.

Net Zero Vehicles

Another significant and growing market for hydrogen is its use as a net zero fuel for vehicles. These vehicles use a fuel cell to convert the energy from hydrogen gas into electricity, which powers the vehicle’s electric motor. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to be more efficient and emit fewer pollutants than traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. One current commercial application of fuel cells is for lift trucks and other material handling equipment. The U.S. Dept. of Energy is also working with the private sector on the feasibility of an expanded U.S. hydrogen-powered trucking fleet. However, these technologies are still relatively new, and the infrastructure required to support widespread use of fuel cell vehicles doesn’t yet exist in most regions.

Hydrogen Storage and Infrastructure

Like most fuels, hydrogen is a flammable gas which makes its storage a point of focus. It is typically stored in the form of compressed gas or liquid. Compressed gas is less dense than liquid but is more convenient for transportation. The highly compressed form of hydrogen can be stored in carbon-fiber reinforced tanks. Liquid hydrogen, on the other hand, is highly dense but requires cryogenic temperatures for storage which makes it less convenient. Building a hydrogen infrastructure is also a significant challenge, as it requires massive investments. Currently, there are only a few hydrogen refueling stations, and they are mostly located in metropolitan areas.

More investment is needed to expand the infrastructure to make hydrogen easily accessible to everyone. The transportation of hydrogen will benefit from dedicated pipelines, which currently do not exist. Building pipelines for hydrogen transportation will be an important step in the adoption of hydrogen. As the hydrogen industry solves these challenges, the molecule has the potential to revolutionize the way energy is produced and used. 



 To sum it up, hydrogen has a critical future in industrial sectors such as petrochemicals, metals refining, and food production. The use of hydrogen as a fuel source also has the potential to revolutionize transportation. However, the adoption of clean hydrogen faces obstacles such as lack of infrastructure. Nonetheless, with advancements in technology, these challenges can be overcome to make hydrogen a key player in the future of energy.


Mechanical Engineer

pH Matter is seeking a Mechanical Engineer to work in our subsidiary Power to Hydrogen to develop and test mechanical components and subsystems for fuel cell and electrolyzer products (10kW-3MW).


  • Participate in brainstorming, concept generation, and problem-solving sessions to shape product design. Identify areas to improve performance and reduce cost.
  • Design and develop 3D models of mechanical components and assemblies to support electrolyzer hydrogen production.
  • Create and revise drawings and bill of materials for manufacturing and
  • Assist in design and assembly of test stands, as well as building and testing of prototypes to support R&D efforts.
  • Communicate functional needs and system requirements to outside suppliers as
  • Document product design, testing, and development following QS/ISO
  • Work well within team environment and with individual


  • A Bachler’s Degree in Mechanical Engineering (BSME) or related discipline.

  • 3+ years of relevant industry experience preferred (developing mechanical parts and assemblies).

  • Experience with engineering modelling tools (Solidworks, Inventor, CREO). Simulation experience using FEA analysist tools is a plus.

  • Demonstrated ability to generated 2D drawings from 3D models for manufacturing (knowledge of GD&T is a bonus).

  • Hands-on prototyping, manufacturing, and assembly experience.

  • Working knowledge of PDM vaults and product lifecycle management tools preferred. Familiarity with industry standards (ASTM, ASME, ISO) is a bonus.

  • Strong communication and analytical skills are a plus. Must be a US Citizen or a permanent resident

To apply, please send a resume and 100 words for why you are a fit for the role to

Power to Hydrogen & ‘Free Electrons’ Global Utility Group Begin Work in Central Ohio

Columbus-Based Power to Hydrogen Will Pilot Hydrogen Technologies with Global Utilities

COLUMBUS – Driven by the threat of climate change, the world is in the midst of a shift to renewable energy and clean fuels, and green hydrogen is expected to play a key role in this transition.  Power to Hydrogen (P2H2), the Columbus-based clean energy startup has begun work with a consortium of international electrical utilities – including American Electric Power (U.S.), EDP (Portugal), E.ON (Germany), and ESB (Ireland) – to demonstrate its low-cost clean hydrogen production and hydrogen energy storage systems.

The collaboration began as a part of the 2022 Free Electrons Program, the leading innovation program for global utilities. Throughout last year, P2H2 and the Free Electrons utilities worked together to define the future of the electric grid and how hydrogen can play a role in making it cleaner and more resilient. Initially, the potential of P2H2’s technology resulted in the startup winning the $200,000 Grand Challenge Prize in October 2022 at the Final Showcase in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Now, the parties are taking it a step further by piloting the hydrogen technologies in various demonstration projects. This is a first of its kind collaborative pilot effort by the utilities in the Free Electrons program working together to push the technology forward.

The first phase of implementation is being led by P2H2’s growing team of engineers with the assistance of AEP’s team at the utility’s Dolan Technology Center in Columbus, Ohio. The utilities are testing P2H2’s prototype and industrial scale AEM electrolysis technology, as well as its reversible fuel cell technology, a potential breakthrough for long duration energy storage.

“The team is excited to begin demonstration of our technology with a group of forward-thinking global utilities so we can show them what the technology is capable of,” P2H2 CEO Dr. Paul Matter said.

P2H2’s reversible fuel cell technology was partially funded through NASA to economically collect solar energy on the moon and store the energy as hydrogen for use during the two-week-long lunar nights. The same technology has earth-based applications for producing, storing and using hydrogen as a decarbonized energy resource.

Power to Hydrogen is commercializing its patent-protected electrolyzers to reduce the cost of hydrogen production by eliminating expensive precious metals in the system and connecting directly to renewable energy for lower-cost, cleaner electricity.

P2H2’s reversible fuel cell technology also provides a breakthrough in efficient energy storage performance by combining both hydrogen production and electricity generation into a single system.

P2H2 Vice President of Business Development Alex Zorniger has worked closely with the Free Electrons group and was the only clean energy startup to be awarded the cash prize and work on pilot projects with four of the international utilities.

“The work of our co-founders, Paul Matter and Chris Holt, and our entire team of engineers, is being validated through these customer partnerships in ways that will lead to sales globally and manufacturing right here in Central Ohio,” Zorniger said.

For media inquires, please reach out to Alex Zorniger at


Power to Hydrogen is a US-Based clean hydrogen startup located in Columbus, Ohio. The company is setting out to make clean hydrogen competitive against fossil fuels. The company has also been funded by other strategic partners, and major U.S. institutions, including NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and ARPA-E, the advanced research projects agency of the DOE.

American Electric Power, based in Columbus, Ohio, is powering a cleaner, brighter energy future for its customers and communities. AEP’s approximately 16,700 employees operate and maintain the nation’s largest electricity transmission system and more than 224,000 miles of distribution lines to safely deliver reliable and affordable power to 5.5 million regulated customers in 11 states. AEP also is one of the nation’s largest electricity producers with approximately 31,000 megawatts of diverse generating capacity, including more than 6,900 megawatts of renewable energy. The company’s plans include growing its renewable generation portfolio to approximately 50% of total capacity by 2032. AEP is on track to reach an 80% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from 2005 levels by 2030 and has committed to achieving net zero by 2045. AEP is recognized consistently for its focus on sustainability, community engagement, and diversity, equity and inclusion. AEP’s family of companies includes utilities AEP Ohio, AEP Texas, Appalachian Power (in Virginia and West Virginia), AEP Appalachian Power (in Tennessee), Indiana Michigan Power, Kentucky Power, Public Service Company of Oklahoma, and Southwestern Electric Power Company (in Arkansas, Louisiana, east Texas and the Texas Panhandle). AEP also owns AEP Energy, which provides innovative competitive energy solutions nationwide. For more information, visit

Present in 29 markets, EDP is a global energy company engaged in electricity and gas production, transport, distribution and trading. With around 13,000 employees and over 12 million customers, EDP is at the forefront of innovation and renewable energies, and it has recently committed to even more ambitious clean energy targets, including becoming all green by 2030.

ESB is Ireland’s leading energy utility with operations spanning electricity generation, transmission and distribution and energy supply.  Since 1927, it has worked to enhance the lives of customers, support economic growth and ensure a brighter future for all.  Today that means taking leadership in the transition to a low carbon future, with a target to reach net zero by 2040.  Through our portfolio of brands, ESB Networks, Electric Ireland, ESB International and NIE Networks, we are removing carbon from our generation fleet, creating a smart network to support a low carbon energy system and developing new products and services to help our customers manage their energy use more efficiently.

E.ON is one of Europe’s largest operators of energy infrastructure and a provider of innovative solutions for more than 50 million customers. Thus, we are decisively driving forward the energy transition in Europe and are committed to sustainability, climate protection, and the future of our planet. As an important part of E.ON’s business, Energy Infrastructure Solutions (EIS) is best positioned to become the change agent for the sustainable energy transition. As a long-term energy partner for cities, municipalities, real estate and industrial customers, EIS offers technical infrastructure solutions that improve the carbon footprint of the customers.

Power to Hydrogen Wins $200k Free Electrons 2022 Award

COLUMBUS – Power to Hydrogen, the Columbus-based clean energy startup, has won the 2022 edition of Free Electrons, a global innovation program sponsored by six global utilities. As part of the program, P2H2 been awarded $200,000 from Free Electrons.

Power to Hydrogen (P2H2) is commercializing its patent-protected, low cost electrolyzers to reduce the cost of hydrogen production and its longer-term storage. Their technology is currently being used in the development of a reversible fuel cell for NASA that is intended to be used for energy storage on the moon. P2H2 is also engaged in other projects with the U.S. Dept. of Energy, global energy leader Shell and others.

Free Electrons is made up of six electrical utilities from North America, Europe, Asia, South America and Australia. The utilities include American Electric Power (AEP) based in Columbus, Ohio, EDP based in Portugal, E.ON based in Germany, ESB based in Ireland, Origen Energy based in Australia, and CLP based in Hong Kong.

“To be recognized by utilities from around the globe with a cash prize for the work we’ve done and our company’s ability to collaborate with them and other startups over the past summer demonstrates our growth as a team and the strength of our underlying technology,” said P2H2 CEO and Chief Technologist Paul Matter.

Alex Zorniger, Vice President of Business Development at P2H2 has lead the Free Electrons project at P2H2 and represented the company at both of Free Electron’s conferences this year. The first was held in Chicago and hosted by AEP. The final meeting was held in Sao Paulo, Brazil

“The program is built to be a ‘business development’ opportunity for startups to deploy their technologies and help leading utilities solve their net zero and electricicity grid of the future challenges. The cash prize is a huge honor for our team, and I think the pilot opportunities we are working on with the utilities may be even more exciting down the road,” Zorniger said.

“Also, to get a 3-foot long decorative check like you see in the lottery was a personal highlight. There was no way I was leaving that prop back in Brazil – there were quite a few chuckles from passengers on my flight home as I wrestled with it on the plane.”

P2H2 was the sole cash recipient during this cycle of Free Electrons.

Beyond the moon, P2H2’s technology will be useful helping the utilities store renewable energy for long periods of time, as well as supporting the utilities’ industrial customers decarbonize in the production of fertilizer, steel making, or transportation applications, to name a few.